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|موضوع: Shakespeare's Biography 31.10.11 3:40|| |
William Shakespeare was born to John Shakespeare and mother Mary Arden some time
in late April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. There is no record of his birth, but his baptism
was recorded by the church, thus his birthday is assumed to be the 23 of April. His father
was a prominent and prosperous alderman in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon, and was later
granted a coat of arms by the College of Heralds.
All that is known of Shakespeare's youth is that he presumably attended the Stratford
Grammar School, and did not proceed to Oxford or Cambridge.
The next record we have of him is his marriage to Anne Hathaway in 1582.
The next year she bore a daughter for him, Susanna, followed by the twins Judith
and Hamnet two years later.
Seven years later Shakespeare is recognized as an actor, poet and playwright, when a rival
playwright, Robert Greene, refers to him as "an upstart crow" in A Groatsworth of Wit.
A few years later he joined up with one of the most successful acting troupe's in London:
The Lord Chamberlain's Men. When, in 1599, the troupe lost the lease of the theatre where
they performed, (appropriately called The Theatre) they were wealthy enough to build their
own theatre across the Thames, south of London, which they called "The Globe."
The new theatre opened in July of 1599, built from the timbers of The Theatre, with the motto
"Totus mundus agit histrionem" (A whole world of players) When James I came to the throne
(1603) the troupe was designated by the new king as the King's Men (or King's Company).
The Letters Patent of the company specifically charged Shakespeare and eight others
"freely to use and exercise the art and faculty of playing Comedies, Tragedies, Histories,
Inerludes, Morals, Pastorals, stage plays ... as well for recreation of our loving subjects as for
our solace and pleasure."
Shakespeare entertained the king and the people for another ten years until June 19, 1613,
when a canon fired from the roof of the theatre for a gala performance of Henry VIII set fire
to the thatch roof and burned the theatre to the ground. The audience ignored the smoke from
the roof at first, being to absorbed in the play, until the flames caught the walls and the fabric
of the curtains. Amazingly there were no casualties, and the next spring the company had the
theatre "new builded in a far fairer manner than before." Although Shakespeare invested in the
rebuilding, he retired from the stage to the Great House of New Place in Statford that he had
purchased in 1597, and some considerable land holdings ,where he continued to write until
his death in 1616 on the day of his 52nd birthday.
In his time William wrote 13 Comedies, 13 Historical Plays, 6 Tragedies, 4 Tragicomedies,
as well as many sonnets (154) , which were mostly dedicated to his patron,
Henry Wriothsley, The Earl of Southampton.